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Nationality: Noun and adjective (sing. and pl.)--Togolese.
Population (2002): 4.8 million.
Annual growth rate (2003): 2.4%.
Ethnic groups: Ewe, Mina, Kabye, Cotocoli, Moba.
Religions (est): Animist 51%, Christian 29%, Muslim 20%.
Languages: French (official), local (Ewe, Mina, Kabye).
Education: Attendance (2000)--62% of age group 5-19 enrolled. Literacy (2003)--male 75%, female 47%.
Health: Life expectancy (2003)--male 51 yrs, female 55 yrs.
Work force: (1999 est.) Total--2 million (43% of the total population); rural work force (est.)--1,350,000; urban work force (est.)--650,000.
People of Togo
Togo's population of 4.8 million people (2002 est.) is composed of about 21 ethnic groups. The two major groups are the Ewe in the South and the Kabye in the North. Population distribution is very uneven due to soil and terrain variations. The population is generally concentrated in the south and along the major north-south highway connecting the coast to the Sahel. Age distribution also is uneven; nearly one-half of the Togolese are less than 15 years of age. The ethnic groups of the coastal region, particularly the Ewes (about 21% of the population), constitute the bulk of the civil servants, professionals, and merchants, due in part to the former colonial administrations which provided greater infrastructure development in the south. The Kabye (12% of the population) live on marginal land and traditionally have emigrated south from their home area in the Kara region to seek employment. Their historical means of social advancement has been through the military and law enforcement forces, and they continue to dominate these services.
Most of the southern peoples use the Ewe or Mina languages, which are closely related and spoken in commercial sectors throughout Togo. French, the official language, is used in administration and documentation. The public primary schools combine French with Ewe or Kabye as languages of instruction, depending on the region. English is spoken in neighboring Ghana and is taught in Togolese secondary schools. As a result, many Togolese, especially in the south and along the Ghana border, speak some English.