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Nationality: Noun and adjective--Ethiopian(s).
Population (2002 est.): 68 million.
Annual growth rate: 2.64%.
Ethnic groups (est.): Oromo 35%, Amhara 30%, Tigre 6.3%, Somali 6% Sidama 6%, Gurage 4%, Wolaita 4%, Afar 2%, other nationalities 6.7%.
Religions: Muslim 45%, Ethiopian Orthodox Christian 45%, Protestant 5%, indigenous beliefs, remainder.
Languages: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Arabic, Guaragigna, Oromigna, English, Somali.
Education: Years compulsory--none. Attendance (elementary) 46%. Literacy--35.5%. Health: Infant mortality rate-97/1,000 live births.
Work force: Agriculture--80%. Industry and commerce--20%.
Ethiopia's population is highly diverse. Most of its people speak a Semitic or Cushitic language. The Oromo, Amhara, and Tigreans make up more than three-fourths of the population, but there are more than 80 different ethnic groups within Ethiopia. Some of these have as few as 10,000 members. In general, most of the Christians live in the highlands, while Muslims and adherents of traditional African religions tend to inhabit lowland regions. English is the most widely spoken foreign language and is taught in all secondary schools. Amharic was the language of primary school instruction but has been replaced in many areas by local languages such as Oromifa and Tigrinya.