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Nationality: Noun and adjective--Chadian(s).
Population (2002 est.): 8.9 million.
Annual growth rate: 3.27%.
Density: 6.6 per sq. km. (17 per sq. mi.).
Ethnic groups: 200 distinct groups. In the north and center, Gorane (Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Arabs, Baguirmi, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are Muslim. In the south, Sara (Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye), Moudang, Moussei, Massa, most of whom are Christian or animist. About 1,000 French citizens live in Chad.
Religions: Muslim 54%, Christian 34%, indigenous beliefs (primarily animism).
Languages: French and Arabic (official); more than 120 indigenous Chadian languages and dialects.
Education: Years compulsory--6. Attendance--primary school 68% (1998); secondary school 5.5% (1995); higher education n/a. Literacy (1998)--40%.
Health: Life expectancy (2001 est.)--51. Infant mortality rate (2002 est.)--93/1,000.
Work force (approximately 48% of population): Agriculture--more than 80%; largely subsistence agriculture.
There are more than 200 ethnic groups in Chad. Those in the north and east are generally Muslim; most southerners are Christians or animists. Through their long religious and commercial relationships with Sudan and Egypt, many of the peoples in Chad's eastern and central regions have become more or less Arabized, speaking Arabic and engaging in many other Arab cultural practices as well. More than three-quarters of the Chadian population is rural.