Browse the listing below to find government information for Turkey, including flags, leaders,
and constitution information. Factrover also has complete information on Turkey at its
Turkey Country Page.
Independence: October 29, 1923.
Constitution: November 7, 1982.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), Council of Ministers (Cabinet--appointed by the president on the nomination of the Prime Minister). Legislative--Grand National Assembly (550 members) chosen by national elections at least every 5 years. Judicial--Constitutional Court, Court of Cassation, Council of State, and other courts.
Political parties in Parliament:, Justice and Development Party (AK), Republican People’s Party (CHP), and True Path Party (DYP). Suffrage: Universal, 18 and older.
National holiday: Republic Day, October 29.
Government of Turkey
The 1982 Constitution proclaims Turkey’s system of government as democratic, secular, and parliamentary.The presidency’s powers are not precisely defined in practice, and the president’s influence depends on his personality and political weight. The judiciary is declared to be independent. Internationally recognized human rights, including freedom of thought, expression, assembly, and travel, are protected but can be limited in times of emergency and cannot be used to violate what the Constitution considers the integrity of the state or to impose a system of government based on religion, ethnicity, or the domination of one social class. The Constitution prohibits torture or ill treatment. Labor rights, including the right to strike, are recognized in the Constitution but can be restricted. The president and the Council of Ministers led by the prime minister share executive powers. The president, who has broad powers of appointment and supervision, is chosen by Parliament for a term of 7 years and cannot be reelected. The prime minister administers the government. The prime minister and the Council of Ministers are responsible to Parliament.
The 550-member Parliament carries out legislative functions. Election is by proportional representation. To participate in the distribution of seats, a party must obtain at least 10% of the votes cast at the national level as well as a percentage of votes in the contested district according to a complex formula. The president enacts laws passed by Parliament within 15 days. With the exception of budgetary laws, the president may return a law to the Parliament for reconsideration. If Parliament reenacts the law, it is binding, although the president may then apply to the Constitutional Court for a reversal of the law. Constitutional amendments require a two-thirds majority for approval. They also may be submitted to popular referendum.
The 1982 Constitution provides for a system of State Security Courts to deal with offenses against the integrity of the state. The high court system includes a Constitutional Court responsible for judicial review of legislation, a Court of Cassation (or Supreme Court of Appeals), a Council of State serving as the high administrative and appeals court, a Court of Accounts, and a Military Court of Appeals. The High Council of Judges and Prosecutors, appointed by the president, supervises the judiciary.
In the November 2002 election of Turkey’s 58th government, the Justice and Development Party (AK) captured 34.3% of the total votes, making Abdullah Gul Prime Minister, followed by the Republican Peoples Party (CHP) with 19.39% of the vote, led by Deniz Baykal. A special General Election was held again in the province of Siirt on March 9, 2003, resulting in the election of AK’s chairman Recep Tayyip Erdogan to a seat in parliament, allowing him to become prime minister on March 13. AK and CHP were the only parties to surpass the 10% threshold required to hold seats in parliament. The elections resulted in 363 of the 550 seats going to AK, 178 seats to CHP, and 9 as independent. Due to a reshuffle in party affiliation, AK holds 367 seats, CHP holds 175 seats, five are independent, and three joined the True Path Parth (DYP).