Serbia and Montenegro Government, Constitution, Flag, and Leaders


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Serbia and Montenegro Government

Browse the listing below to find government information for Serbia and Montenegro, including flags, leaders, and constitution information. Factrover also has complete information on Serbia and Montenegro at its Serbia and Montenegro Country Page.

  • Serbia and Montenegro People
  • Serbia and Montenegro Geography
  • Serbia and Montenegro Economy
  • Serbia and Montenegro History

    Type: Republic.
    Constitution: Adopted April 27, 1992.
    Independence: April 11, 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). On February 4, 2003, the F.R.Y. Parliament adopted a new Constitutional Charter establishing the state union of Serbia and Montenegro.
    Branches: Executive--president (chief of state); prime minister (head of government), Council of Ministers (cabinet). Legislative--Serbia and Montenegro union parliament. Judicial--Federal Court (Savezni Sud) and Constitutional Court.
    Political parties: Serbia--Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians (SVM), Christian Democratic Party of Serbia (DHSS), Civic Alliance of Serbia (GSS), Democratic Alternative (DA), Democratic Center (DC), Democratic Community of Vojvodina Hungarians (DZVM), Democratic Party (DS), Democratic Party of Serbia (DSS), League for Sumadija (LS), League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina (LSV), New Serbia (NS), Reformist Democratic Party of Vojvodina (LSV), Serbian Radical Party (SRS), Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO), Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS--former Communist Party), Yugoslav United Left (JUL); Montenegro--Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (DPS), Liberal Alliance of Montenegro (LSCG), Party of Democratic Action (SDA), People's Party of Montenegro (NS), Social Democratic Party of Montenegro (SDP), Socialist People's Party of Montenegro (SNP).
    Suffrage: 16 years of age if employed; universal at 18.

    Government of Serbia and Montenegro
    State Union of Serbia and Montenegro
    In February 2003, the Constitutional Charter was ratified by the Republic of Serbia, Republic of Montenegro, and the Yugoslav Parliament. The Constitutional Charter changed the name of the country from Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to "Serbia and Montenegro." Under the new Constitutional Charter, most federal functions and authorities devolved to the republic level. The office of President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, held by Vojislav Kostunica, ceased to exist once Svetozar Marovic was elected President of Serbia and Montenegro.

    Republic of Serbia
    Even as opposition to the his regime grew in the late 1990s, Yugoslav President Milosevic continued to dominate the organs of the F.R.Y. Government. Although his political party, the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS), did not enjoy a majority in either the federal or Serbian parliaments, it dominated the governing coalitions and held all the key administrative posts. An essential element of Milosevic's grasp on power was his control of the Serbian police, a heavily armed force of some 100,000 that was responsible for internal security and which committed serious human rights abuses. Routine federal elections in September 2000 resulted in a narrow official victory for Milosevic and his coalition. Immediately, street protests and rallies filled cities across the country as Serbs rallied around Vojislav Kostunica, the recently formed Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS, a broad coalition of anti-Milosevic parties) candidate for F.R.Y. president. Cries of fraud and calls for Milosevic's removal echoed across city squares from Subotica to Nis.

    On October 5, 2000, Slobodan Milosevic was forced to concede defeat after days of mass protests all across Serbia. New F.R.Y. President Vojislav Kostunica was soon joined at the top of the domestic Serbian political scene by the Democratic Party's (DS) Zoran Djindjic, who was elected Prime Minister of Serbia at the head of the DOS ticket in December's republican elections. After an initial honeymoon period in the wake of October 5, DSS and the rest of DOS, led by Djindjic and his DS, found themselves increasingly at odds over the nature and pace of the governments' reform programs. Although initial reform efforts were highly successful, especially in the economic and fiscal sectors, by the middle of 2002, the nationalist Kostunica and the pragmatic Djindjic were openly at odds. Kostunica's party, having informally withdrawn from all DOS decisionmaking bodies, was agitating for early elections to the Serbian Parliament in an effort to force Djindjic from the scene.

    After the initial euphoria of replacing Milosevic's autocratic regime, the Serbian population, in reaction to this political maneuvering, was sliding into apathy and disillusionment with its leading politicians by mid-2002. This political stalemate continued for much of 2002, and reform initiatives stalled. Two rounds of elections for the republic presidency in late 2002 failed because of insufficient voter turnout (Serbian law requires participation by more than 50% of registered voters).

    On March 12, 2003, Serbian Prime Minister Djindjic was assassinated. The Serbian government and the newly formed union government of Serbia and Montenegro reacted swiftly by calling a state of emergency and undertaking an unprecedented crackdown on organized crime which led to the arrest of more than 4,000 people. Zoran Zivkovic, a vice-president of Djindjic's DS party, was elected Prime Minister in March 2003. A series of scandals plagued the Zivkovic government through the second half of 2003, ultimately leading the Prime Minister to call early elections.

    Republic of Montenegro
    Although threatened by Milosevic throughout the last years of his rule, Montenegro's democratization efforts have continued. In January 1998, Milo Djukanovic became Montenegro's President, following bitterly contested elections in November 1997, which were declared free and fair by international monitors. His coalition followed up with parliamentary elections in May 1998. Having weathered Milosevic's campaign to undermine his government, Djukanovic struggled to balance the pro-independence stance of his coalition with the changed domestic and international environment of the post-October 5, 2000 Balkans. In December 2002, Djukanovic resigned as President and was appointed Prime Minister. The new President of Montenegro is Filip Vujanovic.

    Kosovo is an international protectorate administered by the United Nations. While technically still a part of Serbia and Montenegro, the supreme legal authority in Kosovo is the UN Interim Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (passed June 10, 1999) authorizes UNMIK to establish "substantial autonomy and self-governance" in Kosovo and, eventually, to facilitate a political process to determine Kosovo's future status. The senior international official in Kosovo is the Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG), who has sweeping legal authority to govern Kosovo. In August 2003, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan selected former Finish Prime Minister Harri Holkeri to be SRSG.

    Resolution 1244 also authorizes a NATO-led force (Kosovo Force, KFOR) to provide for a safe and secure environment in Kosovo. Over the course of 2003, KFOR was gradually reduced to 17,500 international troops in KFOR, including approximately 2,250 U.S troops (down from over 50,000 international troops in 1999). KFOR numbers are expected to steadily decline as the security situation improves.

    In 2001, the SRSG promulgated a "Constitutional Framework for Provisional Self-Government in Kosovo." This document established a Kosovo Assembly and new Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG). In November 2001, Kosovars held their first free and fair elections for the Kosovo Assembly. The main political parties included the Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK), led by Ibrahim Rugova; Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK), led by former KLA political chief Hashim Thaci; the Alliance for the Future of Kosovo (AAK), led by former KLA commander Ramush Haradinaj; and the Serb coalition party Povratak. The LDK won the elections with 46% of the vote, and the PDK came in second with 26%. They were followed by Povratak at 11% and the AAK at 8%.

    After significant political wrangling, Kosovo's politicians agreed to establish a coalition government in March 2002. As part of the agreement, the Assembly elected Bajram Rexhepi (PDK) as Prime Minister and Ibrahim Rugova (LDK) as President. In 2002, the Kosovo Assembly began to function and pass its first laws. Also in 2002, the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government were formed, with ministries allocated to the parties according to the March 2002 power-sharing agreement. During 2003, UNMIK transferred a significant number of governing competencies to these ministries. UNMIK will retain many powers associated with state sovereignty, including foreign affairs and security, until Kosovo's final status is decided.

    Kosovo's uncertain final status is the key political dynamic in Kosovo. Virtually all Kosovo's Albanians continue to advocate independence, which Serbia finds unacceptable. The international community believes that neither Kosovo nor the region is ready to address the status issue. In early 2002, former SRSG Michael Steiner first articulated a policy of "standards before status," whereby Kosovo's final status will not be addressed until and unless Kosovo meets certain internationally endorsed standards for the establishment of rule of law, functioning democratic institutions, minority rights, and economic development.

    A major political focus in Kosovo is the status of Kosovo's minority communities, especially the Serbs. Kosovo's small Serb community suffers restricted freedom of movement and sporadic acts of inter-ethnic violence. After the war, more than 100,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian ethnic minorities fled Kosovo. As a matter of principle, the international community has encouraged their return, although results have been disappointing.

    Relations between Kosovo Albanians and Serb authorities remain frosty, and there is little contact between them. In 2003, the international community pressed leaders in Belgrade and Pristina to begin a dialogue on practical issues of mutual concern, such as transportation, electricity, and the return of displaced persons.

    The union Parliament is the lawmaking body of the Government of Serbia and Montenegro. The Republic of Serbia and Republic of Montenegro are governed by their respective republic parliaments.


  • Serbia and Montenegro People
  • Serbia and Montenegro Geography
  • Serbia and Montenegro Economy
  • Serbia and Montenegro History