San Marino Government, Constitution, Flag, and Leaders


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San Marino Government

Browse the listing below to find government information for San Marino, including flags, leaders, and constitution information. Factrover also has complete information on San Marino at its San Marino Country Page.

  • San Marino People
  • San Marino Geography
  • San Marino Economy
  • San Marino History

    Type: Republic. Constitution: October 8, 1600, electoral law of 1926 and manuscript of rights (1974) serve some of the functions of the Constitution.
    Branches: Executive--Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state), Congress of State (cabinet) elected by the Great and General Council, Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs (head of government). Legislative--unicameral parliament: 60-member Great and General Council. Judicial--Council of Twelve.
    Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities.
    Political parties: Christian Democratic Party, Democratic Progressive Party, San Marino Socialist Party, National Alliance, Popular Alliance, Communist Refoundation.
    Suffrage: Universal over 18.

    Government of San Marino
    The Arengo, initially formed with the heads of each family, relinquished its power to the Great and General Council. In 1243, the first two Captains Regent were nominated by the Council and this method of nomination is still in use today. The Council is composed of 60 members who are elected every 5 years under a proportional representation system in all nine administrative districts. These districts (Townships) correspond to the old parishes of the Republic, and each one is ruled by a Council which is chaired by a Captain elected every 5 years. The Great and General Council approves the budget as well as the nominations of Captains Regent and heads of the Executive.

    Every 6 months, the Council elects two Captains Regent to be the heads of state. The Regents are chosen from opposing parties so they can keep an eye on each other. They serve a 6-month term. The investiture of the Captains Regent takes place on April 1 and October 1 in every year. Once this term is over, citizens have 3 days in which to file complaints about the Regents' activities. If they warrant it, judicial proceedings against the ex-head(s) of state can be initiated.

    The State Congress, composed of 10 Secretaries, wields executive power. The 10 Secretaries are Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs, Secretary of State for Internal Affairs and Civil Defense, and Secretary of State for Finance, Budget and Programming, Information and Relations with the State Philatelic and Numismatic Office; Education, Culture, University and Justice; Territory, Environment and Agriculture; Health and Social Security; Trade and Relations with the Town Council; Communication, Transport, Relations with the Azienda Autonoma di Stato for Services, Tourism and Sport; Industry and Crafts; and Labour and Cooperation.

    The Council of Twelve is elected by the Great and General Council for the duration of the Legislature and serves a jurisdictional body that also acts as a third instance Court of Appeals. Two government inspectors represent the State in financial and patrimonial questions.

    The Legislative body consists of the Great and General Council, the parliament, and a unicameral Chamber. The members of parliament are usually elected every 5 years and they are in charge of legislation, justice, and the administration of jurisdiction. In addition, they are tasked with electing the Captains Regent, the State Congress, the Council of Twelve, the Advising Commission, and the Government Unions once the Council nominates them. Parliament also has the power to ratify contracts with other countries. The parliament is divided into five different Advising Commissions consisting of 15 councils which examine, propose, and discuss the implementation of new laws that are on there way to being submitted to the Great and General Council.

    The judicial system of San Marino is entrusted to foreign executives, both for historical and social reasons. The only native judges are the Justices of the Peace, who only handle civil cases where sums involved do not exceed 25 million lire. The Council of Twelve serves as an appeals court in the third instance.


  • San Marino People
  • San Marino Geography
  • San Marino Economy
  • San Marino History