Browse the listing below to find government information for Lithuania, including flags, leaders,
and constitution information. Factrover also has complete information on Lithuania at its
Lithuania Country Page.
Type: Parliamentary Democracy.
Constitution: On October 25, 1992 Lithuanians ratified a new constitution, which officially was signed on November 6 that year.
Branches: Executive--popularly elected president (chief of state); prime minister (head of government). Legislative--Seimas (Parliament-141 members, 4-year term). Judicial--Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, and Highest Administrative Court.
Administrative regions: 10 counties and 60 municipalities.
Principal political parties/coalitions: Social Democratic Party 47, New Union 26, Liberal Union 23, Liberal Democratic Party 9, Conservative Party 9, Peasant and New Democracy Party 7.
Suffrage: 18 years, universal.
General government budget (2002): $4.8 billion (exchange rate at the end of 2002--3.4 Lt=$1).
Government of Lithuania
Lithuania is a multi-party, parliamentary democracy. President Rolandas Paksas, who took office in February 2003, is the head of state. The president is elected directly for 5 years, also is commander in chief overseeing foreign and security policy, and nominates the prime minister and his cabinet and a number of other top civil servants.
The parliament (Seimas) has 141 members that are elected for a 4-year term. About half of the members are elected in single constituencies (71), and the other half (70) are elected in the nationwide vote by party lists. A party must receive at least 5% of the national vote to be represented in the Seimas. The last parliamentary elections took place in October 2000.
Since 1991, Lithuanian voters have shifted from right to left and back again, swinging between the Conservatives, led by Vytautas Landsbergis (now headed by Andrius Kubilius), and the Labor (former communist) Party, led by former president Algirdas Brazauskas. This pattern was broken in the October 2000 elections when the Liberal Union and New Union parties won the most votes and were able to form a centrist ruling coalition with minor partners. Former President Adamkus played a key role in bringing the new centrist parties together. The leader of the center-left New Union (also known as the Social Liberal party), Arturas Paulauskas, became the Chairman of the Seimas. The then-government of liberal Rolandas Paksas got off to a rocky start and collapsed within 7 months. In July 2001, the center-left New Union Party forged an alliance with the left-wing Social Democratic Party and formed a new cabinet under former President Algirdas Brazauskas.
The cabinet of Algirdas Brazauskas is made up mostly of non-party technocrats and has emphasized the need for financial discipline. The government remains focused on NATO and EU membership goals.