Browse the listing below to find government information for Kyrgyzstan, including flags, leaders,
and constitution information. Factrover also has complete information on Kyrgyzstan at its
Kyrgyzstan Country Page.
Independence: August 31, 1991 (from the Soviet Union).
Constitution: May 5, 1993.
Branches: Executive--president, prime minister.
Legislative--Parliament. Judicial--Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, local Courts, Procurator-General.
Administrative subdivisions: Seven oblasts and the municipality of Bishkek.
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party "Erkin Kyrgyzstan" or ErK [Bektur Asanov]; Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan [Absamat Masaliyev]; Party of National Revival "Asaba" [Azimbek Beknazarov]; Socialist Party "Ata-Meken [Omurbek Tekebayev]; Republican People's Party [Jenishbek Tentiyev]; Party "Democratic Movement of Kyrgyzstan" [Viktor Tchermorets]; Social Democratic Party [Almazbek Atambayev]; Agrarian Party [Esenkul Aliyev]; Unity of Kyrgyzstan [Karypbek Alymkulov]; Democratic Party of Women [Tokon Shailiyeva]; Party of Veteran's of the Afghan War [Akbokon Tashtanbekov]; Agrarian Labor Party [Unknown]; People's Party [Melis Eshimkanov]; Manas El [Ali-Sultan Ishimov]; Party for protection of Industrial and Agricultural Workers and Families with Low Income [Akbaraly Aitikeyev]; Party of People of Labor [Emil Omurakunov]; Party of Economic Revival [ Valery Khon]; Party of Action "My Country" [Joomart Otorbayev]; Party of Co-operatives [Turgunbay Anarkulov]; Party of People's Unity and Accord [Azamjan Akbarov]; Ar-Namys (Dignity) [Felix Kulov]; Adilet-Tuuluk Republic Party (Fairness) [Chingiz Aitmatov]; Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan [Klara Ajybekova]; Party of Peasants [Esengul Isakov]; Republican Party [Giyaz Tokombayev]; Kairan El Party (Ill-fated People) [Dooronbek Sadyrbayev]; Erkindik [Topchubek Turgunaliyev]; Party of Pensioners [Tursunbek Dautkeldiyev]; "El-Ene Ayalzat" Women's Party [Kalen Aydykova]; Youth Party [Aidar Bakyev]; Kyrgyz National Party [Bakyt Beshimov]; Voice of People [Bolot Maripov and Jenishbek Baiguttiyev]; Party of Entrepreneurs of KG [Chingiz Tursunbekov]; "El Murasy" (People's Heritage) Party [Toktokan Borombayeva]; Party of the People of Kyrgyzstan [Taalaibek Abdyldayev]; 'Elet' (Countryside) [Naken Kasiyev].
Government of Kyrgyzstan
In the first years of full independence, President Akayev appeared wholeheartedly committed to the reform process. However, despite the backing of major Western donors, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Kyrgyz Republic has had economic difficulties from the outset. Initially, these were a result of the breakup of the Soviet trading bloc and resulting loss of markets, which impeded the Republic's transition to a free market economy.
In 1993, allegations of corruption against Akayev's closest political associates blossomed into a major scandal. One of those accused of improprieties was Prime Minister Chyngyshev who was dismissed for ethical reasons in December. Following Chyngyshev's dismissal, Akayev dismissed the government and called upon the last communist premier, Apas Djumagulov, to form a new one. In January 1994, Akayev initiated a referendum asking for a renewed mandate to complete his term of office. He received 96.2% of the vote.
A new constitution was passed by the Parliament in May 1993. In 1994, however, the Parliament failed to produce a quorum for its last scheduled session prior to the expiration of its term (February 1995). President Akayev was widely accused of having manipulated a boycott by a majority of the parliamentarians. Akayev, in turn, asserted that the communists had caused a political crisis by preventing the legislature from fulfilling its role. Akayev scheduled an October 1994 referendum, overwhelmingly approved by voters, which proposed two amendments to the constitution--one that would allow the constitution to be amended by means of a referendum, and the other creating a new bicameral parliament called the Jogorku Kenesh.
Elections for the two legislative chambers--a 35-seat full-time assembly and a 70-seat part-time assembly--were held in February 1995 after campaigns considered remarkably free and open by most international observers, although the election-day proceedings were marred by widespread irregularities. Independent candidates won most of the seats, suggesting that personalities prevailed over ideologies. The new Parliament convened its initial session in March 1995. One of its first orders of business was the approval of the precise constitutional language on the role of the legislature.
On December 24, 1995, President Akayev was reelected for another 5-year term with wide support (75% of vote) over two opposing candidates. President Akayev used government resources and state-owned media to carry out his campaign. Three (out of six) candidates were de-registered shortly before the election.
A February 1996 referendum--in violation of the constitution and the law on referendums--amended the constitution to give President Akayev more power. Although the changes gave the President the power to dissolve Parliament, it also more clearly defined Parliament's powers. Since that time, Parliament has demonstrated real independence from the executive branch.
An October 1998 referendum approved constitutional changes, including increasing the number of deputies in the upper house, reducing the number of deputies in the lower house, providing for 25% of lower house deputies to be elected by party lists, rolling back Parliamentary immunity, introducing private property, prohibiting adoption of laws restricting freedom of speech and mass media, and reforming the state budget.
Two rounds of Parliamentary elections were held on February 20, 2000 and March 12, 2000. With the full backing of the United States, the OSCE reported that the elections failed to comply with commitments to free and fair elections and hence were invalid. Questionable judicial proceedings against opposition candidates and parties limited the choice of candidates available to Kyrgyz voters, while state-controlled media only reported favorably on official candidates. Government officials put pressure on independent media outlets that favored the opposition. The presidential election that followed later in 2000 also was marred by irregularities and was not declared free and fair by international observers.
March 2002 events in the southern district of Aksy, where six people protesting the arbitrary arrest of an opposition politician were shot dead by police, engendered nationwide protests. President Akayev initiated a constitutional reform process with the participation of civic society and opposition representatives. The process, which initially included the participation of a broad range of government, civil and social representatives in an open dialogue, resulted in a February 2003 referendum marred by voting irregularities.