Browse the listing below to find government information for Indonesia, including flags, leaders,
and constitution information. Factrover also has complete information on Indonesia at its
Indonesia Country Page.
Type: Independent republic.
Independence: August 17, 1945 proclaimed.
Constitution: 1945. Embodies five principles of the state philosophy, called Pancasila, namely monotheism, humanitarianism, national unity, representative democracy by consensus, and social justice.
Branches: Executive--president (head of government and chief of state) chosen for a 5-year term by the 700-member People's Consultative Assembly (MPR). Legislative--500-member House of Representatives (DPR) elected for a 5-year term. Judicial--Supreme Court.
Suffrage: 17 years of age universal and married persons regardless of age.
Government of Indonesia
Indonesia is a republic based on the 1945 constitution providing for a limited separation of executive, legislative, and judicial power. Substantial restructuring has occurred since President Soeharto's resignation and the short, transitional Habibie administration which followed. The Habibie government fashioned political reform legislation that- without changing the 1945 Indonesian constitution--formally set up new rules for the electoral system, the House of Representatives (DPR), the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR), and political parties. An MPR decree adopted in November 1998 limits the president to two terms in office.
The president, elected for a 5-year term, is the dominant government and political figure. The president and the vice president are selected by the MPR, although legislation is being considered to provide for direct election of the president in the next election in 2004. The election in June 1999 produced no majority, and the MPR selected Abdurrahman Wahid, also known as Gus Dur, as the fourth president. Wahid proved unable to govern effectivel, and the MPR impeached him in July 2001, immediately appointing then-Vice President Megawati Soekarnoputri as the fifth, and current, president. Although Megawati is the daughter of Indonesia's first president, Soekarno, and owes her early political prominence to him, she has achieved her own political power base and operates independently of her father. The President, assisted by a cabinet that she appoints, has the authority to conduct the administration of the government and is accountable only to the MPR. Although President Megawati's PDI-P party is the largest in parliament, she does not have a majority. She has formed a coalition government; her Vice President, Hamzah Haz, for instance, represents an Islamic party.
Under the political laws enacted in January 1999, the House of Representatives (DPR) has 500 members, of which 462 are elected and 38 appointed seats are reserved for the armed forces (TNI). The TNI seats are to be phased out. The People's Consultative Assembly (MPR), which elects the president and vice president, has 700 members, consisting of the 500 members of the DPR, 135 provincial representatives selected by provincial assemblies, and 65 representatives appointed by social and community groups. The armed forces shaped and provided leadership for Soeharto's New Order from the time it came to power in the wake of the abortive 1965 uprising. Military officers, especially from the army, were key advisers to Soeharto and Habibie and had considerable influence on policy. Under the dual function concept ("dwifungsi"), the military asserted a continuing role in sociopolitical affairs. This concept was used to justify placement of officers to serve in the civilian bureaucracy at all government levels. Although the military still has great influence and is perhaps the only truly national institution, dwifungsi has largely disappeared. Military officers must now resign from the armed forces before taking a civilian government position. The police have been separated from the military, further reducing the military's direct role in governmental matters.