Browse the listing below to find government information for Chad, including flags, leaders,
and constitution information. Factrover also has complete information on Chad at its
Chad Country Page.
Independence: August 11, 1960 (from France).
Branches: Executive--president (head of state), prime minister, Council of Ministers. Legislative--National Assembly (unicameral). Judicial--Supreme Court; Court of Appeals; criminal courts; magistrate courts president (head of state, president of the council of ministers), council of ministers.
Major political parties: About 60, of which Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS) is dominant. Other major parties include the Federation Action for the Republic (FAR); Party for Liberty and Development (PLD); Rally for Development and Progress (RNDP); Union for Democracy and the Republic (UDR); National Union for Development and Renewal (UNDR); Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP); Viva Rally for Development and Progress, or Viva RNDP.
Suffrage: Universal over 18.
Administrative subdivisions: 17 departments.
A strong executive branch headed by President Deby dominates the Chadian political system. Following his military overthrow of Habre in December 1990, Deby won presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. The constitutional basis for the government is the 1996 Constitution, under which the president is limited to two terms of office. The president has the power to appoint the prime minister and the Council of State (or cabinet), and exercises considerable influence over appointments of judges, generals, provincial officials and heads of Chadís parastatal firms. In cases of grave and immediate threat, the president, in consultation with the National Assembly President and Council of State, may declare a state of emergency. Most of the Debyís key advisers are members of the Zaghawa clan, although some southern and opposition personalities are represented in his government.
According to the 1996 Constitution, National Assembly deputies are elected by universal suffrage for 4-year terms. Parliamentary elections were last held in April 2002, with President Debyís MPS party winning a large majority. The Assembly holds regular sessions twice a year, starting in March and October, and can hold special sessions as necessary and called by the prime minister. Deputies elect a president of the National Assembly every 2 years. Assembly deputies or members of the executive branch may introduce legislation; once passed by the Assembly, the president must take action to either sign or reject the law within 15 days. The National Assembly must approve the prime ministerís plan of government and may force the prime minister to resign through a majority vote of no confidence. However, if the National Assembly rejects the executive branchís program twice in one year, the president may disband the Assembly and call for new legislative elections. In practice, the president exercises considerable influence over the National Assembly through the MPS party structure.
Despite the Constitutionís guarantee of judicial independence from the executive branch, the president names most key judicial officials. The Supreme Court is made up of a chief justice, named by the president, and 15 councilors chosen by the president and National Assembly; appointments are for life. The Constitutional Council, with nine judges elected to 9-year terms, has the power to review all legislation, treaties and international agreements prior to their adoption. The Constitution recognizes customary and traditional law in locales where it is recognized and to the extent it does not interfere with public order or constitutional guarantees of equality for all citizens.