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Type: Republic; 3-year transitional government as of November 1, 2001.
Independence: July 1, 1962 (from Belgium).
Constitution: A transitional Constitution was adopted October 18, 2001.
Branches: Executive--transitional president, transitional vice president, 26-member Counsel of Ministers. Legislative--186-member National Assembly (85 elected, 101 appointed by the signatories to the Arusha Peace Accords), 54-member Senate, 3 seats reserved for former presidents, including one for former transitional President Buyoya, 3 seats reserved for the ethnic Twa minority, 2 from each of the 16 provinces and the city of Bujumbura, one Hutu and one Tutsi, plus 14 appointed by the president according to his own criteria. Judicial--constitutional and subsidiary courts.
Administrative subdivisions: 16 provinces plus the city of Bujumbura, 117 communes.
Political parties: Multi-party system consisting of 21 registered political parties, of which FRODEBU (the Front for Democracy in Burundi, predominantly Hutu with some Tutsi membership) and UPRONA (the National Unity and Progress Party, predominantly Tutsi with some Hutu membership) are national, mainstream parties. Other Tutsi and Hutu opposition parties and groups include, among others, PARENA (the Party for National Redress, Tutsi), ABASA (the Burundi African Alliance for the Salvation, Tutsi), PRP (the People's Reconciliation Party, Tutsi), CNDD (the National Council for the Defense of Democracy, Hutu), PALIPEHUTU (the Party for the Liberation of the Hutu People, Hutu) and FROLINA/FAP (the Front for the National Liberation of Burundi/Popular Armed Forces, Hutu).
Suffrage: Universal adult; elections to be held in accordance with the Arusha Peace Accords and the transitional Constitution before November 2004.
In November 1995, the presidents of Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zaire announced a regional initiative for a negotiated peace in Burundi facilitated by former Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere. In July 1996, former Burundian President Buyoya returned to power in a bloodless coup. He declared himself president of a transitional republic, even as he suspended the National Assembly, banned opposition groups, and imposed a nationwide curfew. Widespread condemnation of the coup ensued, and regional countries imposed economic sanctions pending a return to a constitutional government. Buyoya agreed in 1996 to liberalize political parties. Nonetheless, fighting between the army and Hutu militias continued. In June 1998, Buyoya promulgated a transitional Constitution and announced a partnership between the government and the opposition-led National Assembly. After Facilitator Julius Nyerere's death in October 1999, the regional leaders appointed Nelson Mandela as Facilitator of the Arusha peace process. Under Mandela the faltering peace process was revived, leading to the signing of the Arusha Accords in August 2000 by representatives of the principal Hutu (G-7) and Tutsi (G-10) political parties, the government, and the National Assembly. However, the FDD and FNL armed factions of the CNDD and Palipehutu G-7 parties refused to accept the Arusha Accords, and the armed rebellion continued.
In November 2001, a 3-year transitional government was established under the leadership of Pierre Buyoya (representing the G-10) as transitional president and Domitien Ndayizeye (representing the G-7) as transitional vice president for an initial period of 18 months. In May 2003, Mr. Ndayizeye assumed the presidency for 18 months with Alphonse Marie Kadege as vice president. While the establishment of a transitional government represents significant progress toward representative government and elections, failure to reach agreement with the rebel factions on an end to the fighting has delayed implementation of military reform and other social and political measures called for by the Arusha Accords. A permanent cessation of hostilities will be essential for the complete implementation of the democratization and security provision of the Arusha Accords. President Ndayizeye continues to negotiate with the CNDD-FDD on an integration plan under the auspices of Tanzania, Uganda and South Africa. There are plans for local and national elections before the conclusion of the transitional period in November 2004.