The information below contains geography information for Estonia, including climate, weather,
cities, and area information. You can also check out the
Estonia Country Page for additional
Area: 45,226 sq. km. (17,462 sq. mi.); about the size of New Hampshire and Vermont.
Cities: Capital--Tallinn (pop. 397,150). Other cities--Tartu (101,190); Narva (67,752); Kohtla-Jarve (46,765); Parnu (44,781); Viljandi (20,509). The last population census was held in 2000.
Terrain: Flat, average elevation 50m. Elevation is slightly higher in the east and southeast. Steep limestone banks and 1,520 islands mark the coastline. Land use--9.5% arable land, 47,4% forest and woodland, 22% swamps and bogs, 21.5% other. Coastal waters are somewhat polluted.
Climate: Temperate, with four seasons of near-equal length. Annual precipitation averages 50-75 cm.
Between 57.3 and 59.5 latitude and 21.5 and 28.1 longitude, Estonia lies on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea on the level northwestern part of the rising East European platform. Average elevation reaches only 50m (160 ft.).
The climate resembles New England's. Oil shale and limestone deposits, along with forests which cover 47% of the land, play key economic roles in this generally resource-poor country. Estonia boasts more than 1,500 lakes, numerous bogs, and 3,794 km of coastline marked by numerous bays, straits, and inlets. Tallinn's Muuga port offers one of Europe's finest warmwater harbor facilities.
Estonia's strategic location has precipitated many wars that were fought on its territory between other rival powers at its expense. In 1944 the U.S.S.R. granted Russia the trans-Narva and Petseri regions on Estonia's eastern frontier, which still remain contested bilaterally.